Hybrids: 200-300 grains/m2
Population rye: 300-400 grains/m2
Rye is very resistant to cold temperatures.
Rye has a strong root system.
Adjust the nitrogen supply to demand in order to avoid lodging.
Hybrid and population rye require different fertilization.
Seeding is carried out from the end of September to the beginning of October. The planting density varies greatly between varieties. In very good conditions and early sowing with hybrid varieties (70-75% share), very low densities of 150 to 180 seeds/ m2 are possible. Population rye is sown at a density of 250 to 300 seeds/ m2 and late varieties at a density of 300 to 350 seeds/ m2.
Although rye is a relatively robust cereal, it needs plant protection treatment to achieve high yields. The stem and bulb eelworm (Ditylenchus dipsaci) is a pathogenic nematode that also affects rye and is prevalent following a mild winter. Appropriate crop rotation and seed dressing can reduce the occurrence of phytopathogenic fungi (ergot, Claviceps purpurea) which has to be controlled by fungicides.
Due to the early development and high amount of tillering, rye competed well against weeds. A treatment with herbicides should be carried out in autumn.
(Unit/t of production)
(Unit/t of production)
B- and Mn-fertilization recommended
First application in spring
Second nitrogen fertilization
Third nitrogen fertilization
Fertilization in autumn is seldom necessary. Nevertheless, applying 20 to 30kg nitrogen can be beneficial on fields with low nitrogen supply from the previous crop (cereals or maize), and with a high amount of crop residue. Fertilization with a compound NPK fertilizer (COMPLEX 15/15/15 +7SO3+Zn) also enhances tillering and improves frost hardiness.
The first nitrogen fertilization at tillering (BBCH 21-25) influences the stock density. This application should only provide 30% of the total fertilized nitrogen at the most. An exception can be made for very poorly developed stocks. Phosphorus and potassium are applied with the first dose in spring, if not already provided in autumn. The most efficient choice is a compound NPK+S fertilizer (COMPLEX 15/15/15 +7SO3+Zn, COMPLEX 14/10/20 +10SO3, COMPLEX 20/8/8 +3MgO+10SO3).
Fertilization at the start of bolting (BBCH 30-32) influences the number of ears and the number of grains per ear. This dose regulates the stock density. Very dense stocks are fertilized later at the two-node growth stage (BBCH 32) while stocks with a low density are fertilized earlier (BBCH 29-30) to increase the number of tillers. This application should provide a maximum of 50% of the total nitrogen fertilized. On very light soils suffering from drought in spring, this application can be combined with an application at ear emergence.
A third nitrogen fertilization can optimize the N supply at very high yield expectations. This late application at ear emergence (BBCH 37-49) influences the yield (grain filling and thousand-grain weight). On very light soils with drought in spring, this application can be combined with an application at bolting (second N fertilization).