Austria
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  • Soil texture

    Sandy to heavy soil

  • Min. temperature
    4°C
  • pH
    6.5 -7
  • Water demand
    > 300 l/m2
  • Vernalisation
    0-3 °C, 49 - 50 days
  • Plant density
    Early sowing: 180-200 grains / m2
    Late sowing: 250-280 grains / m2
  • Seeding Depth
    2-4 cm
Triticale
Triticale is the result of a cross between wheat and rye (Triticum x Secale). The intention is to combine Rye’s hardiness, undemanding nature and resistance to disease with the yield potential of wheat. This has only been partially successful. On less fertile soils rye is more advantageous thanks to its good root system. Triticale is less sensitive than wheat to soil acidity and micronutrient deficiency. The full yield potential requires a good nutrient and water supply. Triticale is mainly grown in locations where the climate is poor. It is mainly used as fodder but is also mixed with wheat and rye flour for human nutrition. Alternatively, it can be used as whole crop silage for biogas production.
Key facts
  • NPK+S fertilization for an optimal start to growth in spring.

  • Nitrate-containing fertilizers are the best suited to efficient fertilization.

  • Triticale is sensitive to copper, manganese, and zinc.

  • The demand for soil quality is in between that of rye and wheat.

General Information
General Information
Nutrient demand
Nutrient demand
Fertilization
Fertilization

Triticale is sown between mid-September and mid-October. Because of its vulnerability to diseases and fusarium, it is best planted after foliage plants. Triticale is also often cultivated after wheat. In order to reduce the risk of fusarium head blight, activities that accelerate the decomposition of crop residues (soil cultivation) are beneficial.

The basal fertilization is calculated based on the nutrients removed after harvest. Triticale has a medium coper, manganese, and zinc requirement which is either provided with the first fertilization or by foliar fertilization combined with the first plant protection measures in spring. 
Demand and exported nutrients

Element

Uptake

(Unit/t of production)

Removal

(Unit/t of production)

Sensibility to deficiency

N

22

17

Sensitive

P₂O₅

11

8

Sensitive

K₂O

21

6

Very Sensitive

MgO

4

2

Sensitive

SO₃

9

5

Sensitive

TE

Pay attention to coper, manganese and zinc deficiency

The table shows uptake and removal of nutrients per tonne of grain yield. In order to achieve a yield of 7 tonnes, 154kg nitrogen is required. Depending on soil properties and preceding crop, 30 to 60kg of nitrogen is provided by the soil. 95 to 125kg of nitrogen needs to be fertilized.

Autumn fertilization

First nitrogen fertilization in spring

Second N-fertilisation

Third N-fertilisation

Autumn fertilization

Usually the nitrogen that remains in the soil (Nmin) is sufficient in autumn. Nitrogen fertilization is only recommended if the preceding crop was very demanding in nitrogen and/or if large quantities of nitrogen-poor crop residues remain in the field. A dose of 30kg N/ha enhances the decomposition of the crop residues and avoids nitrogen immobilization. This fertilization is ideally done with COMPLEX 15/15/15 +7SO3+Zn.

First nitrogen fertilization in spring

The nitrogen requirement depends on the yield expectation, variety and the development of the stock. Approximately 40% of the nitrogen is needed when vegetation starts. A maximum of 70kg N/ha is applied early in spring. This is also the appropriate time for P, K and S fertilization if not done in autumn. Therefore the use of a COMPLEX (NPK+S) fertilizer is recommended (50kg SO3 /ha). The first nitrogen fertilization increases tillering and helps to achieve a high number of grains.

Second N-fertilisation

The second fertilization at stem elongation applies 35 to 40% of the total N requirement. Commonly 60kg N/ha are appropriate and serves to stabilise the number of tillers and establishment of grains.

Third N-fertilisation

The dose applied shortly before, or at ear emergence (20 to 25% of the total N-requirement) is only provided at high yield expectation and enhances grain filling.