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Austria
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  • Soil texture
    Medium heavy soils, no waterlogging
  • Min. temperature
    Sprouts from 8°C, optimal 12°C and above
  • pH
    Tolerant of slightly acidic to slightly alkaline soils; pH optimal: 7.0
  • Water demand
    Min. 300l/m2
  • Vernalisation
    -
  • Plant density
    According to variety 9-11 seeds/m²
  • Seeding Depth
    3-6cm
Silage Maize
Silage maize prefers nutrient-rich soils with a high content of organic matter. Since the entire plant is removed, replenishing nutrients and organic carbon within the operating cycle is essential. Like grain maize, silage maize needs well-aerated soils, and is sensitive to compaction and structural problems in the soil. Growing catch crops with an appropriate root mass to loosen the soil is an advantage. As a C4 plant, the water demand of maize is relatively low in relation to yield, but it does need plenty of heat and nutrients for high yields. There is a wide range of different maize varieties, which facilitates maize production at different locations and environmental conditions. The ripening tendencies of the varieties is indicated in the ripeness index and ranges between FAO 200 and FAO 400 and above. Silage maize is also suitable for cultivation at higher altitudes and can therefore be found in almost all agricultural areas.
Key facts
  • observe phosphorus-potassium sensitivity
  • P subsoil fertilization on cold soils
  • urea needs to be incorporated into the soil
  • harvest delay due to too late second application of N.
General Information
General Information
Nutrient demand
Nutrient demand
Fertilization
Fertilization
MAIZE - WIDELY USABLE AND HIGH-YIELDING
Silage maize is usually used as animal fodder. It can also be used for biogas production. It is harvested when sugar and starch levels reach a high enough level, as this makes for good quality silage. It is just as easy to manage silage maize as it is grain maize. After sowing 9-11 seeds per m², a maize herbicide is used, either before or after germination, until the six-leaf stage. Wireworms can be problematic, particularly when maize crops are rotated with fodder grass, and treated with insecticides. Other significant pests are the corn borer and maize rootworm. Corn smut is a commonly occurring fungal disease, depending on the variety and weather conditions. Fungal diseases are easily transmitted from previous crops to maize. These infections are detected after harvest in the mycotoxin values of a crop. These problems can be addressed by appropriate crop rotations, balanced fertilization and the use of less sensitive varieties. Maize fungicides are currently only used in propagation.
Maize fertilization: the correct amount of N, P and K is significant.
Silage maize, has a high nitrogen requirement, as well as a high demand for phosphate and potash. Phosphate is often poorly available for young maize plants, especially under wet, cold, and dry conditions, or when the soil is compacted. In the juvenile phase, the maize root system is still poorly developed. Phosphate deficiency often shows as red or violet discoloration. Potassium  controls water uptake and regulates the stomata. In addition, potassium influences assimilation in the grain. Potassium is best applied with phosphorus and nitrogen as a complex fertilizer before cultivation or used in addition to farm fertilizers. Some of the nutrient requirements are covered using cattle manure or by recycling the fermentation residues from biogas plants.
Demand and extraction quantities of silage maize

Element

Uptake

(Unit/t of production)

Removal

(Unit/t of production)

Sensitivity to deficiency

N

12

12

Very Sensitive

P2O5

4.2

4.2

Very Sensitive

K2O

12

12

Very Sensitive

MgO

1.9

1.9

Sensitive

SO3

2.2

2.2

Sensitive

TE

Zinc (Zn) from the 6-leaf stage, boron (B) enhances fecundation

The table shows the uptake and removal per tonne of silage maize dry-mass yield. Silage maize needs mainly nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Sulphur and magnesium must also be present in appropriate amounts.
For example, a silage maize yield of 20t/ha takes up 240kg N/ha. Assuming 40kg N/ha of N replenishment from the soil and 20kg N/ha from the leguminous intermediate crop, 180kg N/ha would need to be added in fertilizer. Because the entire plant is harvested, these 240kg/ha will be removed from the field but eventually returned in part as manure or fermentation residues.

Fertilization recommendations:

Silage maize needs nutrients in concentrated form, especially in the first phase of plant development. The total amount of nutrients required for grain maize can be applied prior to cultivation. The largest requirement for nutrients is in the first phase of growth. Too late an application of mineral N increases the risk of leaf burning and delayed ripening. When using urea as well as cattle manure, gaseous N-losses can be substantial if these fertilizers are not worked into the soil immediately after application. Only with high yield expectations and therefore a high N requirement or on light soils (where there is a risk of N-leaching) is a split application of nitrogen is appropriate. One third of the planned quantity of nitrogen is applied during the two to four leaf stage. Later applications increase the risk of leaf burn and delay ripening. The result of this is higher moisture contents in the grain.

Banded fertilization in the form of NP fertilizer brings yield benefits, especially in heavy soils, cold locations and soils low in phosphate, as the poorly developed roots of the young plants can feed directly from the fertilizer band. Temporary phosphate deficiency during juvenile development can be resolved very well with liquid fertilizers or water-soluble nutrient salts applied as foliar fertilizer. Liming can be done before sowing or even in autumn. The maximum quantity of CaO should be 1.500kg/ha - preferably in the form of calcium carbonate, to avoid boron fixation.

Yield parameters of silage maize:

  • Number of plants/m²
  • Fresh mass yield per plant
  • Dry matter content %


Growing 9-11 strong plants per m² with stable, long-growing stems is ideal and makes for high yields. Strong and healthy cobs are particularly important for a high energy density of the harvested material.


First application

Second application

First application

A single dose of the total nutrient requirements for optimal maize fertilization:
Maize needs its nutrients in the first phase of growth until tasselling. Fertilization before sowing is therefore required to achieve high yields. With the appropriate NPK formula, all the required nutrients can be supplied in one application. N fertilization depends on subsequent delivery from the soil and is based on extraction, which corresponds to approximately 160-180kg N/ha. It is important to use water-soluble nutrients. From the six-leaf stage onwards, a high daily mass formation begins, which is associated with high nutrient absorption rates of several kg/ha and day. Emphasis on phosphorus fertilization in maize ensures the desired yields when using manure from cattle farming and biogas slurry.

Second application

Final fertilization in the two to four leaf stage:
At high yield expectations, and therefore higher N requirements, as well as on light soils to avoid leaching losses, N-fertilization is divided into two applications. In this case, one third of the total amount of nitrogen should be added as fast acting nitric nitrogen in the two to four leaf stage. Later fertilization brings no yield advantage but carries the risk of leaf burning and delayed ripening.