• 11°
    Austria
I'M LOOKING FOR A

FERTILIZER

CONTAINING

NUTRIENT

FOR

CROP

Search
  • Soil texture
    Sandy to medium-heavy soil
  • Min. temperature
    1°C
  • pH
    5.5 -7
  • Water demand
    > 300 l/m2
  • Vernalisation
    0-3 °C, 25 - 30 days
  • Plant density

    Hybrids: 200-300 grains/m2

    Population rye: 300-400 grains/m2

  • Seeding Depth
    1-3 cm
Winter Rye
Rye is a very robust cereal crop and can therefore be grown in almost all soils with relatively low average temperatures and at altitudes up to 2000 metres. Rye can withstand temperatures as low as -25 °C and is a very competitive crop on light-textured soils. 

The well-developed root system facilitates a very efficient use of nutrients and water. The early plant development and long duration of the grain-filling phase is a further advantage for the use of nutrients and winter moisture. Rye needs a heat sum  of approximately 1800°C until ripening. 

Rye is a heathy grain used in bread and is mainly processed into flour for human consumption. Further markets are animal feed thanks to its high-protein quality and bio-fuel production. 
Key facts
  • Rye is very resistant to cold temperatures.

  • Rye has a strong root system.

  • Adjust the nitrogen supply to demand in order to avoid lodging.

  • Hybrid and population rye require different fertilization.

General Information
General Information
Nutrient Demand
Nutrient Demand
Fertilization
Fertilization

Seeding is carried out from the end of September to the beginning of October. The planting density varies greatly between varieties. In very good conditions and early sowing with hybrid varieties (70-75% share), very low densities of 150 to 180 seeds/ m2 are possible. Population rye is sown at a density of 250 to 300 seeds/ m2 and late varieties at a density of 300 to 350 seeds/ m2.

Although rye is a relatively robust cereal, it needs plant protection  treatment to achieve high yields. The stem and bulb eelworm (Ditylenchus dipsaci) is a pathogenic nematode that also affects rye and is prevalent following a mild winter. Appropriate crop rotation and seed dressing can reduce the occurrence of phytopathogenic fungi (ergot, Claviceps purpurea) which has to be controlled by fungicides. 

Due to the early development and high amount of tillering, rye competed well against weeds. A treatment with herbicides should be carried out in autumn.

Due to its intensive root system, rye is capable of using nutrients very effectively. The addition of nitrogen needs to calculated carefully, because on the one hand it is important for the development of qualitative characteristics, but on the other hand, too much nitrogen can cause lodging. Depending on yield expectation, supply from the soil, and variety, rye needs 90 to 110kg nitrogen per hectare. This is usually fertilised over one or two applications.  

On sandy humic soils, foliar fertilization with copper is recommended. Manganese deficiency is often observed on chalky, sandy soils. The provision of boron has a positive influence on flowering (fertilization at flag leaf or early flowering stage). 
Extracted quantities of rye

Element

Uptake

(Unit/t of production)

Removal

(Unit/t of production)

Sensitivity to deficiency

N

20

15

Moderately Sensitive

P₂O₅

11

8

Moderately Sensitive

K₂O

26

6

Sensitive

MgO

4

2

Moderately Sensitive

SO₃

3.5

2

Moderately Sensitive

TE

B- and Mn-fertilization recommended

The table shows uptake and removal of nutrients per tonne of yield. For a yield of 7 tonnes, 140kg nitrogen is required. Depending on soil properties and previous crops, 30 to 60kg N is provided from the soil. Therefore, a fertilisation of 90 to 110kg nitrogen is sufficient in most cases.