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  • Bodenbeschaffenheit
    Deep, humus loamy soil or loamy sandy soil, no waterlogging
  • Mindesttemperatur
    Damage due to low winter temperatures and late frosts; heat affects fruit size negatively
  • pH
    Weak acid soils with pH values of 5.0-6.5 are ideal.
  • Wasserbedarf
    Min. 500 l/m2 frequently watered
  • Vernalisation
    -
  • Saatstärke
    Depending on variety, culture duration and rows on the bed Single row: 35,000-45,000 plants/ha Two-rowed 50,000-70,000 plants/ha
  • Saattiefe
    Root neck slightly above (fresh seedlings) or below ground (frigo seedlings)
Strawberries
Strawberry varieties are subdivided into so-called single-flowering "summer" varieties and repeat-flowering ("day-neutral") varieties. For the repeat-flowering varieties, the plants can, if light and temperatures are ok, flower throughout the entire year. Thus, they enable an almost year-round strawberry cultivation.
Wichtige Fakten
  • Higher nitrogen requirement in the first year for plant growth
  • Best nutrient absorption in a slightly acidic environment
  • Use chloride-free or -weak fertilizer
  • Potassium supply important.
Allgemeine Informationen
Allgemeine Informationen
Nährstoffbedarf
Nährstoffbedarf
Düngung
Düngung
STRAWBERRIES - SWEETNESS FROM THE FIELD
Humic, deep soils are good for strawberry cultivation. Locations that are prone to waterlogging and carry the risk of late frosts should be avoided. Strawberries should not be grown after potatoes, tomatoes, alfalfa, oilseed rape and meadows (wireworm). There are 2 types of planting material for strawberries: - Fresh seedlings (bare-root or with balled-root): Planting: Mid-July to mid-August. They make high demands on the water supply after planting and must be irrigated. Slightly lower, but higher quality and early yield. - Frigo seedlings are rooted out from November to January and then stored at -1.5°C. They consist only of heart, rhizome and roots (no foliage). Planting period: End of March - beginning of June. In the field, strawberries are usually planted as a two-years crop, as the incidence of disease increases significantly thereafter.
Strawberry fertilization differs in the two crop years
To determine the fertilizer requirement, it is advisable, as in all crops, to carry out a soil analysis, at a depth of 0-30 cm for strawberries. At strawberry locations, there are 3 Nmin target values at planting, spring and post-harvest periods, if there is another crop in the following year. The target value is 60kg N/ha in all 3 periods. Since strawberries are very sensitive to salt, fertilizers containing chloride should be avoided, and several smaller fertilizer applications should be done. Due to a weakly acidic environment, the uptake of micronutrients such as iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) is optimally possible. The demand for potassium by strawberries is remarkably high. In addition to yield production, potassium is also responsible for the taste due to its influence on the sugar and acid balance of the plant. In terms of quantity, its fertilization is based on the supply of the soil and the quantities extracted.
Extraction quantities for strawberries

Element

Aufnahme

(Einheit/t der Produktion)

Entzug

(Einheit/t der Produktion)

Sensitivität auf Mangel

N

6

3

Sehr emfpindlich

P2O5

2.2

0.5

Sehr emfpindlich

K2O

8.5

2.8

Empfindlich

MgO

1.2

0.6

Empfindlich

TE

Boron (B), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) via foliar fertilisation

The table shows uptake and removal per tonne of strawberry yield. According to this, strawberries mainly need nitrogen, potash and magnesium. Example: A strawberry yield of 20t/ha takes up 120kg N/ha. If a certain amount of N replenishment is absorbed from the soil (for example 30kg N/ha), then 90kg N/ha would need to be added by means of fertilizer. Via the harvest, 60kg N/ha would be removed from the field.
Nitrogen determines vegetative growth Strawberries have an increased nitrogen requirement during growth and fruit formation. They prefer ammonium nitrate, which is absorbed especially during the vegetative growth period. In the case of high temperatures or low pH, nitrate is preferred by the plant. Sufficient supply is necessary for yield formation, but excessive nitrogen supply brings along problems such as excessive suckers, increased susceptibility to disease, or increased sensitivity to cold. Nitrogen should always be applied in the form of topsoil application, whereas phosphorus, potash and magnesium can be used for basic fertilization. Row fertilization is optimal for nitrogen application, especially for large row spacing. Phosphate is important for good root growth In order to stimulate root growth in the best possible way, incorporation of phosphate, either in combination with potash or as NPK fertilizer, before setting, is advantageous. In addition, the flowering behaviour is positively influenced by a sufficient supply of phosphorus. Potassium versus stress Potassium is important for fruit ripeness, fruit colour and sufficient supply to reduce the stress symptoms caused by drought and cold. Calcium improves fruit quality Regular calcium (Ca) applications are recommended, especially on sandy soils. Calcium is responsible for building the cell walls and thus for better fruit strength. Likewise, calcium is necessary for optimal resistance to sodium toxicity and decreased susceptibility to Botrytis. Calcium deficiency reduces the lifespan of strawberry plants. Beyond that, a sufficient lime supply supports the soil structure; strawberries are very sensitive to compaction and waterlogging. Magnesium and trace elements for better durability An adequate supply of magnesium (Mg) is important as a chlorophyll component for photosynthesis, similarly with copper (Cu). Magnesium and copper also support the shelf life of fruits.

First application

Second application

Fertigation - fertilization via irrigation as an alternative

First application

Basic nutrients before planting In order to stimulate root growth and to cover the basic nutrient requirement, it is advisable to administer a portion of the nitrogen, as well as the amounts of phosphate, potassium and magnesium, via a chloride-free, potash-emphasized NPK fertilizer even before planting.

Second application

Nitrogen supplement during growth To cover the needed total amount of nitrogen a few weeks beyond planting, the necessary amount of nitrogen is given as topsoil application. Especially in the case of repeat-flowering varieties, the fertilized nitrogen of the plant must be immediately available. Nitrate-based nitrogen fertilizers (NAC 27 N) are the means of choice in this case. Trace elements are applied in liquid form, usually combined with crop protection measures.

Fertigation - fertilization via irrigation as an alternative

Since strawberries are easily dehydrated and this leads to significant yield and quality losses, strawberries are very frequently irrigated. In the case of a continuous supply of water, a continuous supply of nutrients adapted to the state of development of the plant is also possible through irrigation. Since strawberries are most comfortable in the soil solution at a salinity of 0.4-0.6mS/cm, the salt content of the fertilizer solution should not be higher than 1.25mS/cm. By a coverage with straw or a mulch film, the water requirement can be lowered with and without irrigation. Iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) are both involved in photosynthesis and protein metabolism. Boron (B) is important for pollen fertility. These trace elements can be added in the course of fertigation.